Tourette’s Syndrome and Stuttering Tourette’s syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder with childhood onset. The primary characteristics of the disorder include recurrent motor, phonic, and mental tics; complex vocalizations; and behavioral complications that usually appear by 7 years of age and are episodic and situational in nature (Bruun & Bruun, 1994;Pauls, Leckman, & ... Article
Article  |   September 01, 2006
Tourette’s Syndrome and Stuttering
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Joseph Donaher
    The Center for Childhood Communication, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Special Populations / Genetic & Congenital Disorders / Articles
Article   |   September 01, 2006
Tourette’s Syndrome and Stuttering
SIG 4 Perspectives on Fluency and Fluency Disorders, September 2006, Vol. 16, 5-6. doi:10.1044/ffd16.2.5
SIG 4 Perspectives on Fluency and Fluency Disorders, September 2006, Vol. 16, 5-6. doi:10.1044/ffd16.2.5
Tourette’s syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder with childhood onset. The primary characteristics of the disorder include recurrent motor, phonic, and mental tics; complex vocalizations; and behavioral complications that usually appear by 7 years of age and are episodic and situational in nature (Bruun & Bruun, 1994;Pauls, Leckman, & Cohen, 1993). Symptoms are exacerbated by stress, increase in severity over time, and can be managed or controlled temporarily with a great deal of effort (Pauls et al.;Fenichel, 1997).
Tics are repetitive, rapid, involuntary movements or vocalizations that are thought to be secondary to abnormal metabolism of the neurotransmitter dopamine (Bruun & Bruun, 1994) . Tics can vary in presentation, severity, duration, and complexity over time. Tics may be simple, involving only one muscle group, or complex in nature, involving multiple muscle groups. They can be either motor or phonic in nature. Common motor tics include facial grimaces, eye-blinking, shrugging, headjerking, face-rubbing, and lip-licking. Common phonic tics include throatclearing, snorting, grunting, sniffing, repeating words, barking, and impulsive remarks. Mental tics-such as intrusive words/images, rituals, or a fascination with morbid or perverse topic-are common. In addition, behavioral complications can include recurrent negativism, tantrums, and overreacting (Bruun & Bruun; Pauls et al., 1993).
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